Write. When Lenin died in 1924 Joseph Stalin fought for the leadership of the party. Cities were renamed in his honor. JOSEPH STALIN, dictator of the Soviet Union, was intensely bullied as a child over his facial disfigurement, archive reports revealed. Test. Convinced of the Allies' hostility toward the Soviet Union, Stalin became obsessed with the threat of an invasion from the West. After his expulsion from school, Stalin became involved in underground political movements, participating in various rallies and protests. 70% of Central Comittee elected at the 17th Party Congress arrested and shot 1108/1966 delegates of the Congress shot (the ones that voted for Kirov) This shows grudge, revenge in eliminating past and future opponents. His government also controlled the Soviet media. Before it could be executed, however, Stalin died on March 5, 1953. He was handsome, charismatic and a favorite of Lenin. Both British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt argued that such an action would result in heavy casualties. Stalin suffered another foreign policy defeat after he encouraged North Korean Communist leader Kim Il Sung to invade South Korea, believing the United States would not interfere. Joseph Stalin rose to power as General Secretary of the Communist Party in Russia, becoming a Soviet dictator after the death of Vladimir Lenin. In 1922, Stalin was appointed to the newly created office of general secretary of the Communist Party. The other village children treated him cruelly, instilling in him a sense of inferiority. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Joseph Stalin rose to power as General Secretary of the Communist Party in Russia, becoming a Soviet dictator after the death of Vladimir Lenin. In 1948, Stalin ordered an economic blockade on the German city of Berlin, in hopes of gaining full control of the city. For a time, the revolutionaries supported a provisional government, believing a smooth transition of power was possible. When Lenin died in 1924 Joseph Stalin fought for the leadership of the party. He also agreed to enter the war against Japan once Germany was defeated. In 1933, the year Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) became chancellor of Germany, he named Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945), his trusted friend and colleague, to the key post of minister for public enlightenment and propaganda. Lenin founded the GULAG (an acronym for, in English, Main Administration of Collective Labor Camps), the network of prisons and forced labor camps throughout the Soviet Union. Learn. As the tide of war slowly turned in the Allies' favor, Roosevelt and Churchill met with Stalin to discuss postwar arrangements. Stalin came to power when Lenin died in 1924 by outmaneuvering his rivals to become the head of the Communist Party and then the dictator of the Soviet Union. It's estimated that Stalin killed as many as 20 million people, directly or indirectly, through famine, forced labor camps, collectivization and executions. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. https://www.biography.com/dictator/joseph-stalin. Stalin was an exceptional individual because of what he became and what he did, the positions he occupied in a tumultuous time. Stalin Becomes Dictator. However, further paranoia set in and Stalin soon conducted a vast reign of terror, having people arrested in the night and put before spectacular show trials. But it was Stalin who employed them to their most hideous and at least semi-effective ends. Gravity. He censored photographs in an attempt to rewrite history, removing former associates executed during his many purges. In the years following the death of Vladimir Lenin, he rose to become dictator of the Soviet Union, using a combination of manipulation and terror to destroy his opposition. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Stalin also fathered several children out of wedlock. Lenin was exiled in Switzerland in 1912 when he appointed Joseph Stalin to serve for the Bolshevik Party on the first Central Committee. The dropping of two atomic bombs in August 1945 forced Japan's surrender before the Soviets could mobilize. Stalin was a dictator of the Soviet Union starting from 1922-1953 (Mazelev, 1999). Learn. He was one of three recognized leaders after Lenin's death in January, 1924. After Lenin's death, in 1924, Stalin set out to destroy the old party leadership and take total control. government which take total control over every aspect of public and private life. Joseph Stalin did not mellow with age: He prosecuted a reign of terror, purges, executions, exiles to labor camps and persecution in the postwar USSR, suppressing all dissent and anything that smacked of foreign–especially Western–influence. Despite initially governing the country as part of a collective leadership, he ult… madisontriolo. Stalin pleaded help from Britain and US to fight Germany. By March, the tsar had abdicated the throne and was placed under house arrest. Though never a strong orator like Vladimir Lenin or an intellectual like Leon Trotsky, Stalin excelled in the mundane operations of the revolution, calling meetings, publishing leaflets and organizing strikes and demonstrations. Stalin, however, did not want ‘independence’ to go too far and become real independence. At the first of these meetings, in Tehran, Iran, in late 1943, the recent victory in Stalingrad put Stalin in a solid bargaining position. The KGB served a multi-faceted role outside of and within the Soviet Union, working as both an intelligence agency and a force of “secret police.” It was also tasked with some of ...read more, Joseph Hooker (1814-1879) was a career U.S. military officer who served as a major general and commander of the Union Army of the Potomac during the Civil War (1861-65). Millions were killed in forced labor or starved during the ensuing famine. In 1888, she managed to enroll him in church school in Gori. Stalin aligned with the United States and Britain in World War II (1939-1945) but afterward engaged in an increasingly tense relationship with the West known as the Cold War (1946-1991). But like many people in higher politics, he was at the same time quite ordinary — a small man placed in extraordinary circumstances. Hooker entered the Civil War in 1861 as a brigadier general and gained a reputation as a reliable combat ...read more, Since its start a century ago, Communism, a political and economic ideology that calls for a classless, government-controlled society in which everything is shared equally, has seen a series of surges—and declines. He also developed a cruel streak for those who crossed him. He worked his way up the ranks of the Communist Party and became General Secretary, ultimately installing himself as dictator in the wake of Vladimir Lenin’s death. His development plan was centered on government control of the economy and included the forced collectivization of Soviet agriculture, in which the government took control of farms. By 1927, Stalin was the unquestioned ruler of the Soviet Union. Joseph Stalin was a Georgian born student radical who became a member and eventually became leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. The fledgling Soviet government went through a violent period after the revolution as various individuals vied for position and control. Access hundreds of hours of historical video, commercial free, with HISTORY Vault. Accounts differ as to the reason; official school records state he was unable to pay the tuition and withdrew. Slowly, Germany started to invade Russia in 1941, but Stalin handled it well, believing that victory relies on supplies and the will of the people to fight. Joseph Conrad was an author who is remembered for novels like 'Heart of Darkness,' which drew on his experience as a mariner and addressed profound themes of nature and existence. Some scholars have argued that Stalin's record of killings amount to genocide and make him one of history's most ruthless mass murderers. However, he has found a rekindled popularity among many of Russia's young people. The period known as the Great Purge eventually extended beyond the party elite to local officials suspected of counter-revolutionary activities. He led the opposition to Stalin in the Politburo. Millions of farmers refused to cooperate with Stalin’s orders and were shot or exiled as punishment. He expanded the powers of the secret police, encouraged citizens to spy on one another and had millions of people killed or sent to the Gulag system of forced labor camps. Then, in June 1941, Germany broke the Nazi-Soviet pact and invaded the USSR, making significant early inroads. Bukharin was something of a darling in the Party. He left a legacy of death and horror, even as he turned a backward Russia into a world superpower. By the next year, the Soviet Army was liberating countries in Eastern Europe, even before the Allies had mounted a serious challenge against Hitler at D-Day. That is an easy one, though I think it might be too late. He was the subject of flattering artwork, literature and music, and his name became part of the Soviet national anthem. He adopted the name Koba, after a fictional Georgian outlaw-hero, and joined the more militant wing of the Marxist Social Democratic movement, the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin. The situation changed at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945. In 1950, he gave North Korea’s communist leader Kim Il Sung (1912-1994) permission to invade United States-supported South Korea, an event that triggered the Korean War. For many Americans, the most enduring ...read more, The KGB was the primary security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its collapse in 1991. Because of this, Stalin began a quest for greatness and respect. He was arrested multiple times between 1902 and 1913, and subjected to imprisonment and exile in Siberia. Stalin, who grew increasingly paranoid in his later years, died on March 5, 1953, at age 74, after suffering a stroke. After Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) died, Stalin outmaneuvered his rivals for control of the party. Though his popularity from his successes during World War II was strong, Stalin's health began to deteriorate in the early 1950s. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II tried to strengthen the Habsburg empire with his enlightened reforms, but the changes he made were met with fierce opposition. He was one of three recognized leaders after Lenin's death in January, 1924. Terms in this set (12) Who took over the Communist party after Lenin? They had two children, a boy and a girl (his only daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva, caused an international scandal when she defected to the United States in 1967). His had filled the administration of the Party with people who were loyal to him. Roosevelt died that April and was replaced by President Harry S. Truman. Joseph Stalin ruled the Soviet Union for more than two decades, instituting a reign of death and terror while modernizing Russia and helping to defeat Nazism. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Stalin was so distraught at Hitler's treachery that he hid in his office for several days. For the most part, Stalin was another anti-Semite at … Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. While there he began secretly reading the work of German social philosopher and “Communist Manifesto” author Karl Marx, becoming interested in the revolutionary movement against the Russian monarchy. In 1912, Lenin, then in exile in Switzerland, appointed Joseph Stalin to serve on the first Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party. You should have started in childhood. In 1906, Stalin married Ekaterina “Kato” Svanidze (1885-1907), a seamstress. What year did he become absolute, undisputed dictator? In 1939, on the eve of World War II, Joseph Stalin and German dictator Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) signed the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. DOWNLOAD BIOGRAPHY'S JOSEPH STALIN FACT CARD. Today, it is one of Russia's largest cities and a key industrial center. During the 1930s and ’40s he promoted certain aspects of Russian history, some Russian national and cultural heroes, and the Russian language, and he held the Russians up as the elder brother for the non-Slavs to emulate. In 1922, as general secretary of the Communist Party, he worked behind the scenes . After an assassination plot was uncovered, he ordered the head of the secret police to instigate a new purge of the Communist Party. Joseph Stalin was born Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili on December 18, 1878, or December 6, 1878, according to the Old Style Julian calendar (although he later invented a new birth date for himself: December 21, 1879), in the small town of Gori, Georgia, then part of the Russian empire. After the 1930s there was not much left of Ukrainian and Belorussian literature – almost all authors had been shot or sent to prison camps to die”. Match. In 1912, Vladimir Lenin, one of the founders of Bolshevism, chose Stalin to join the Bolshevik’s Central Committee. Stalin was convinced of Hitler's integrity and ignored warnings from his military commanders that Germany was mobilizing armies on its eastern front. Stalin was born into poverty at the tail-end of the 19 th century. https://www.history.com/topics/russia/joseph-stalin. Nadezhda committed suicide in her early 30s. Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. Spell. Stalin also set in motion rapid industrialization that initially achieved huge successes, but over time cost millions of lives and vast damage to the environment. Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953. Perhaps unsurprisingly, his only daughter, Svetlana, found it extraordinarily difficult growing up in the Kremlin under his care. In February 1945, the three leaders met again at the Yalta Conference in the Crimea. By 1928 he had removed all of his enemies and became the sole leader of the Soviet Union. When the Nazi blitzkrieg struck in June 1941, the Soviet Army was completely unprepared and immediately suffered massive losses. He became chair of the Senate's subcommittee on investigations. Test. Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953. A perennial viral favorite every election year is a statement attributed to Joseph Stalin, leader of the U.S.S.R. from 1922 through 1953, about voting vs. who wins in elections. READ MORE: How Photos Became a Weapon in Stalin's Great Purge. However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign. Earlier, he had ordered the Soviet representative to the United Nations to boycott the Security Council because it refused to accept the newly formed Communist People's Republic of China into the United Nations. To give you a real beating. His Red Army helped defeat Nazi Germany during World War II. He made shrewd appointments and consolidated his power so that eventually nearly all members of the central command owed their position to him. He established communist governments throughout Eastern Europe, and in 1949 led the Soviets into the nuclear age by exploding an atomic bomb. How Joseph Stalin Starved Millions in the Ukrainian Famine, How Photos Became a Weapon in Stalin's Great Purge. Between 1945 and 1948, he established Communist regimes in many Eastern European countries, creating a vast buffer zone between Western Europe and "Mother Russia.". In 1901, he joined the Social Democratic Labor Party and worked full-time for the revolutionary movement. As the war progressed, Stalin participated in the major Allied conferences, including those in Tehran (1943) and Yalta (1945). World Studies World War II. Joseph Goebbels served as minister of propaganda for the German Third Reich under Adolf Hitler — a position from which he spread the Nazi message. When he was in his 30s, he took the name Stalin, from the Russian for “man of steel.”. Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin terrorised his own people, but for the first time a survey suggests that most Russians view him favourably. During the second half of the 1930s, Stalin instituted the Great Purge, a series of campaigns designed to rid the Communist Party, the military and other parts of Soviet society from those he considered a threat. The GULAG's primary purpose, though, was to gain control of the population t… 6 December] 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who ruled the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. The couple had one son, Yakov (1907-1943), who died as a prisoner in Germany during World War II. By 1928 he had removed all of his enemies and became the sole leader of the Soviet Union. Newspaper editor and publisher Joseph Pulitzer helped set the pattern of the modern newspaper. He harbored a dislike in particular for a man named Trotsky, a Marxist wh… What is totalitarianism? Three years later, in November 1917, the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia. Find out more about his life and rise to power in this video. Joseph Stalin. Joseph Stalin was a Georgian born student radical who became a member and eventually became leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.He served as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953. Why Did Stalin Become a Dictator? In 1918 (some sources cite 1919), Stalin married his second wife, Nadezhda “Nadya” Alliluyeva (1901-1932), the daughter of a Russian revolutionary. Stalin at first betrayed his fellow communists in China … Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Stalin reversed the Bolshevik agrarian policy by seizing land given earlier to the peasants and organizing collective farms. In a similar manner, Stalin at first supported the creation of Israel and then later withdrew his support. Joseph L. Mankiewicz was an American screenwriter, director and producer known for writing hit movies such as 'All About Eve,' 'A Letter to Three Wives' and 'Cleopatra.'. Starting in the late 1920s, Joseph Stalin launched a series of five-year plans intended to transform the Soviet Union from a peasant society into an industrial superpower. He is considered as one of the leaders who were responsible for the death of many people during their rule. After escaping from exile, he was marked by the Okhranka, (the tsar's secret police) as an outlaw and continued his work in hiding, raising money through robberies, kidnappings and extortion. READ MORE: How Joseph Stalin Starved Millions in the Ukrainian Famine. Stalin believed that collectivism would accelerate food production, but the peasants resented losing their land and working for the state. Stalin then proceeded to annex parts of Poland and Romania, as well as the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. His father was a shoemaker and alcoholic who beat his son, and his mother was a laundress. Stalin also became involved in various criminal activities, including bank heists, the proceeds from which were used to help fund the Bolshevik Party. The camps, like prisons throughout the world, were used to house criminals. Some of the members were socialists who introduced him to the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. The Allies responded with the massive Berlin Airlift, supplying the city and eventually forcing Stalin to back down. STUDY. At first, he had people removed from power through bureaucratic shuffling and denunciations. Created by. Write. With Soviet troops liberating countries in Eastern Europe, Stalin was again in a strong position and negotiated virtually a free hand in reorganizing their governments. Though not a significant post at the time, it gave Stalin control over all party member appointments, which allowed him to build his base. Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. ' hostility toward the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower fight! The collectivization of agricultural land, resulting in millions dying from famine others! An industrial and military superpower action in the Politburo then proceeded to annex parts of Poland and,..., although he claimed it was too late unable to pay the tuition and.! 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